July 5, 2024

Understanding Hand-Arm and Whole-Body Vibration: Risks and Management

Work environments involving the use of vibrating tools and machinery expose workers to significant health risks from hand-arm vibration (HAV) and whole-body vibration (WBV). These risks can lead to severe conditions like Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), and chronic musculoskeletal disorders. There are health implications, risk factors, and management strategies for HAV and WBV. People who use vibrating machinery must get manual handling training, use the appropriate PPE, and ensure that they are medically and physically able to use it.

Hand-Arm Vibration (HAV)

Health Risks and Symptoms

Hand-arm vibration is caused by using hand-held power tools and machines that transmit vibration to the hands and arms. These can be things like compactors, jackhammers, grinders, polishers and orbital sanders. Prolonged and frequent exposure can result in HAVS and CTS. Symptoms include tingling, numbness, and pain in the fingers and hands, which can progress to permanent nerve and blood vessel damage if ignored. These conditions often affect workers in industries like construction, forestry, and metalworking​.

Risk Factors

Several factors increase the risk of developing HAVS and CTS, including the vibration intensity of the tools, duration of exposure, and the condition of the tools. Older, poorly maintained tools typically emit higher levels of vibration. Cold environments and pre-existing medical conditions like diabetes or arthritis also exacerbate the risks.

Management and Mitigation

To manage HAV risks, it is crucial to use the right tools for the job, maintain equipment regularly, and train workers on proper usage techniques. Employers should monitor vibration levels and implement control measures if exposure exceeds recommended thresholds. For instance, tools should be equipped with vibration-dampening handles, and workers should take regular breaks to minimize exposure.

Whole-Body Vibration (WBV)

Health Risks and Symptoms

Whole-body vibration occurs when vibration is transmitted through a surface a worker is sitting or standing on, commonly affecting those who operate heavy machinery, vehicles or stand-on vibrating platforms, such as excavators and forklifts. Long-term exposure to WBV can lead to lower back pain, neck and shoulder discomfort, and other musculoskeletal disorders. These conditions are prevalent among workers in agriculture, construction, and transportation/logistics industries.

Risk Factors

The severity of WBV exposure depends on factors such as the machine's vibration intensity, the duration and frequency of exposure, and the design of the machine’s seating and suspension systems. Poor posture, improper seating adjustments, and using machines on rough or unsuitable terrains further increase the risk​.

Management and Mitigation

Effective management of WBV involves selecting appropriate machinery for specific tasks, ensuring machines are well-maintained, and training operators on proper use. Employers should monitor vibration levels and adjust work schedules to limit prolonged exposure. Providing ergonomically designed seats that support proper posture can significantly reduce the impact of WBV. Additionally, maintaining optimal tire pressure and using suspension systems can help mitigate the effects​.

Employer Responsibilities

Employers have a legal obligation to manage and mitigate risks associated with both HAV and WBV. This includes conducting risk assessments, engaging with workers to identify hazards, and implementing control measures to minimize exposure. Regular health monitoring and vibration exposure assessments are essential to ensure worker safety and compliance with health and safety regulations.


Hand-arm vibration and whole-body vibration pose serious health risks to workers exposed to vibrating tools and machinery. Understanding these risks and implementing effective management strategies are crucial for preventing long-term health issues. By maintaining equipment, training workers, and monitoring exposure levels, employers can create safer work environments and protect their workforce from the detrimental effects of vibration.


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