Making CBD isolate is a complicated process. It involves several steps, each with a different method of removing terpenes, waxes, and other plant components.
The first step is to wash the crude oil with cold solvent. This removes contaminants that could interfere with the extraction process. In addition, some CBD may be removed during this process.
During the second step, a solution is created using a solvent of choice. The dissolved plant components are then pumped into the primary extraction vessel. Using a stirring attachment, the solvent is agitated in order to separate the components of the hemp biomass.
After the extraction process is complete, a secondary vessel is used to entrap the extracted components. A wiped film evaporator creates a thin film from the increasingly viscous liquid.
A condensing coil is cooled in the secondary vessel with recirculating fluid. This process is called winterization. Winterization removes chlorophyll and fats, as well as waxes.
Depending on the desired throughput of the system, manufacturers can use hydrocarbon or ethanol solvents. They can also utilize chromatography. Chromatography removes terpenes and other impurities.
The final step is to decarboxylate the solution, a chemical reaction that converts an acidic form of the cannabinoid to a more active form. Decarboxylation increases the efficiency of the CBD isolation process.
If the yield is too high, the remaining components can be stripped away from the extract. However, if not, the purity of the isolate will be reduced.