All of the following are benefits of the database approach except Option C: Minimal data sameness or redundancy
The database approach provides a number of advantages for information storage and manipulation. These include better modelling of real-world data, uniform security and integrity controls, economy of scale, concentration of processing, and new specialised personnel.
Data Independence: Changes in the logical data are not affected by changes in the physical storage of the data, avoiding the need to update application programs that use conceptual interfaces.
Self-describing: The database itself is a self-describing system, with metadata which defines the structure of the data and relationships between tables. This is different to a file-based system in which the data definition is part of the application programs.
Backup and recovery: The DBMS takes care of data backup and restores it after system failure or crash. This eliminates the need for user to backup their database periodically.
Data Integrity: The data in a database is consistent across the entire database and all users viewing it. This ensures that the data is accurate and up to date, and prevents users from creating data inconsistencies or errors.
Privacy: Only authorised users are allowed to access the database according to its access constraints. These limits are defined by the DBMS and a user must comply with these restrictions to be able to access the database.
The database approach enables organisations to store and retrieve large amounts of data efficiently, and at lower cost. This is often due to the ability of a DBMS to provide scalable capacity. This enables companies to cope with changing business requirements, and increase their data storage capacity as their business grows.